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I'm not an expert teacher or lecturer of chemistry. I was only a student from SMA NEGERI 15 SURABAYA who had been one of the Bronze Medalist Participants of Olimpiade Sains Nasional X (2011) of Chemistry In Manado, North Sulawesi, 11 - 16 September 2011 and graduated in 2012. Now, I'm studying at Universitas Airlangga in Surabaya, Indonesia. I do love chemistry and I would like to help them who had difficulties in studying chemistry. That's why, please understand me if you found some misconcepts in my entries. Suggestions are always necessary in order to develop this blog. And I'm sorry because my English isn't so well.

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The Documents

Sunday, December 11, 2011

Metallurgy Introduction

Metallurgy is the branch of materials science concerned with the extraction and utilization of metals. The concept in metallurgy is how to get the metal we want from its ore. There are general procedures in metallurgy to extract a metal from its ore:



Those procedures above are simpler procedure. Now let's see a more difficult procedure:


http://www.gardguide.com/images/3/34/MajorStepsInvolvedinExtraction.gif


The Downs Cell (Producing Sodium and Chlorine Gas)

NaCl is extracted from the sea. Then, the salt is crushed and fused (melted) with the mixture of NaCl and 1,5 parts of CaCl2 to reduce its melting point (801 oC) to 508 oC. This liquid is transported to Electrolytic Apparatus called The Downs Cell.


http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078807239/602905/figure_17_14.jpg

Sodium and calcium ions are reduced at the cathode to form molten sodium and calcium and chloride ions are oxidized at the anode to form chlorine gas.

Further Reading...
Silberberg. Fifth Edition Chemistry, The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change. McGraw-Hill


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