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I'm not an expert teacher or lecturer of chemistry. I was only a student from SMA NEGERI 15 SURABAYA who had been one of the Bronze Medalist Participants of Olimpiade Sains Nasional X (2011) of Chemistry In Manado, North Sulawesi, 11 - 16 September 2011 and graduated in 2012. Now, I'm studying at Universitas Airlangga in Surabaya, Indonesia. I do love chemistry and I would like to help them who had difficulties in studying chemistry. That's why, please understand me if you found some misconcepts in my entries. Suggestions are always necessary in order to develop this blog. And I'm sorry because my English isn't so well.

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The Documents

Monday, December 19, 2011

Spectrometry Introduction

Spectrometry is the branch of Chemistry which learn the interaction between compounds and electromagnetic wave. Scientists use this special characteristic to identify unknown compounds. Thanks to this branch we can identify easily unknown compounds now, not like before it was found, we had to check any function group in an unknown compound (it takes a very long time, people).

There are several popular (in senior high school level) spectroscopy instrumental used in order to identifying compounds:

1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
2. Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
3. Ultraviolet - Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy
4. Mass Spectroscopy

NMR utilizes magnetic field formed when the electron spin of the objects (Hydrogen, Carbon, Phosphorous, etc) absorb wave of radio. In medical, NMR is used as MRI in order to check disorders in our brain.

Example of 1H-NMR spectroscopy of Ethanol.
(Source: http://www.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/PPS2/projects/schirra/images/etoh2_1.gif)


Infrared spectroscopy utilize the vibration of molecules of compounds when it absorb the IR wave. The problem in this spectroscopy is: the cell (cuvette) used is so expensive.


The Infrared Spectroscopy of Etanol
(Source: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/analysis/ir/irethanol.GIF)


UV - Vis Spectroscopy utilize the transition of electron of unsaturated compounds when the compounds absorb Ultraviolet wave. Remember that this wave doesn't make the electrons in compounds excitated.


An example of UV-Vis Spectroscopy
(Source: http://www.agwinter.chemie.uni-konstanz.de/images/res2_fig3.JPG)


Mass spectroscopy is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. It is used for determining masses of particles, for determining the elemental composition of a sample. There are important procedures in Mass Spectroscopy.

1. A sample is loaded onto the MS instrument and undergoes vaporization
2. The components of the sample are ionized by one of a variety of methods
3. The ions are separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio in an analyzer
4. The ions are detected, usually by a quantitative method
5. The ion signal is processed into mass spectra

From the descriptions above, we need to make the sample ionized to be identified with this spectroscopy.


Mass Spectroscopy of Ethanol
(Source: http://online.cit.edu.au/toolboxes/labtech/Laboratory/StudyNotes/Graphics/massSpec3.gif)


Interaction of Compounds with Electromagnetic Waves


Further Reading . . .
Wikipedia


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