There are several popular (in senior high school level) spectroscopy instrumental used in order to identifying compounds:
1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
2. Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
3. Ultraviolet - Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy
4. Mass Spectroscopy
NMR utilizes magnetic field formed when the electron spin of the objects (Hydrogen, Carbon, Phosphorous, etc) absorb wave of radio. In medical, NMR is used as MRI in order to check disorders in our brain.
Example of 1H-NMR spectroscopy of Ethanol.
Infrared spectroscopy utilize the vibration of molecules of compounds when it absorb the IR wave. The problem in this spectroscopy is: the cell (cuvette) used is so expensive.
The Infrared Spectroscopy of Etanol
UV - Vis Spectroscopy utilize the transition of electron of unsaturated compounds when the compounds absorb Ultraviolet wave. Remember that this wave doesn't make the electrons in compounds excitated.
An example of UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Mass spectroscopy is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. It is used for determining masses of particles, for determining the elemental composition of a sample. There are important procedures in Mass Spectroscopy.
1. A sample is loaded onto the MS instrument and undergoes vaporization
2. The components of the sample are ionized by one of a variety of methods
3. The ions are separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio in an analyzer
4. The ions are detected, usually by a quantitative method
5. The ion signal is processed into mass spectra
From the descriptions above, we need to make the sample ionized to be identified with this spectroscopy.
Mass Spectroscopy of Ethanol
Interaction of Compounds with Electromagnetic Waves
Further Reading . . .