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I'm not an expert teacher or lecturer of chemistry. I was only a student from SMA NEGERI 15 SURABAYA who had been one of the Bronze Medalist Participants of Olimpiade Sains Nasional X (2011) of Chemistry In Manado, North Sulawesi, 11 - 16 September 2011 and graduated in 2012. Now, I'm studying at Universitas Airlangga in Surabaya, Indonesia. I do love chemistry and I would like to help them who had difficulties in studying chemistry. That's why, please understand me if you found some misconcepts in my entries. Suggestions are always necessary in order to develop this blog. And I'm sorry because my English isn't so well.

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The Documents

Tuesday, December 27, 2011

Synthesis of Drugs

In medical life, drugs are very needed to be consumed by human in order to cure their self from disease. In the early time of drugs invention, the drugs are extracted from plants (Please read about Alkaloid). Now, scientist has synthesized so many drugs to fulfill the humans needed. I will give you 5 examples of drugs and the synthesis of it (In my Version, don't trust it).

1. Benzyl Benzoate
Benzyl benzoate, as a topical solution, may be used as an antiparasitic insectide to kill the mites responsible for the skin condition scabies.

It has other uses:
I. a fixative in fragrances to improve the stability and other characteristics of the main ingredients
II. a treatment for sweet itch in horses
III. a treatment for scaly leg mites in chickens

Synthesis of Benzyl Benzoate
1. Tishchenko Reaction

2. My Version

The theories of my synthesis is, benzyl alcohol produced is reacted with benzoate acid. To raise the amount of benzoate acid, we can oxidize a phenol and benzoate acid is formed. To avoid the equilibrium reaction, we can synthesis anhydride benzoate first and reacting the compound with benzyl alcohol with some drop of phosphate acid at 333 K.

2. Amphetamine
Amphetamine is a psychostimulant drug of the phenethylamine class that produces increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. Amphetamine can also be street named as 'wizz, speed, fast, amp, phet'.

Physical effects of amphetamine can include hyperactivity, dilated pupils, vasoconstriction, blood shot eyes, flushing, restlessness, dry mouth, bruxism, etc (and even death).

Synthesis (My Version):

There's a problem in this synthesis: there is a chiral carbon so that we have to control the absolute configuration of our amphetamine. For now, I don't get the right reaction to give the right configuration. So, I decided to neglect the absolute configuration in this post. The second problem is, I still don't know is the Wollf-Kishner Reduction will be shut in because of the hydroxy?

3. Ethenzamide
Ethenzamide is a common analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. It is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu medications and many prescription analgesics.

Synthesis (My Version):

4. (R) - Guaifenesin and (S) - Guaifenesin
Guaifenesin ( (RS)-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol) ) is an expectorant drug sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections. The principal use of guaifenesin is in the treatment of coughing, but the drug has numerous other uses, including medical, veterinary, and personal.

Synthesis (My Version):

In my opinion, to synthesis (R) - Guaifenesin, 3-Bromo-1-Propyne is used to be the reagent in this synthesis. Then, the Osmylation reaction will product a "cis" compound because this reaction is a syn-addition reaction. The "Cis" compound can be converted into "Trans" with UV and the last, the hydrogenation reaction will product a Trans (R) compound.

5. Chlorpromazine

First synthesized on December 11, 1950, chlorpromazine was the first drug developed with specific antipsychotic action, and would serve as the prototype for the phenothiazine class of drugs, which later grew to comprise several other agents. The introduction of chlorpromazine into clinical use has been described as the single greatest advance in psychiatric care, dramatically improving the prognosis of patients in psychiatric hospitals worldwide, the availability of antipsychotic drugs curtailed indiscriminate use of electroconculsive therapy and psychosurgery, and was one of the driving forces behind the deinstitutionalization movement.

Synthesis (From Wikipedia):

Further Reading. . .


  1. cool synthesis
    where did you learn it?

  2. I learned from experiences and wikipedia, hehehe..

  3. wow you're really smart
    where did you learn organic chemistry?

  4. Thanks, you too and your blog is great..

    Mostly from Fessenden and Wikipedia...

  5. thanks, but your blog is much better than mine

    fessenden?,i don't have that book yet
    is it good?

  6. Just let's share our mind to improve our blog, okay? :)

    Yes it is, So many knowledge I got from it..

  7. ok, i like that :)

    really?, in that case i will search it sometimes
    i really want to study organic chemistry

  8. Okay, and I will wait your name in the list of medalist of OSN 2012, good luck :)

  9. Amin , thanks for the pray :)
    but I'm still in tenth grade, i still need to learn many things

  10. Don't worry, there's a tenth grade student from Bali who defeated me in OSN, he got Silver but I got Bronze, age doesn't mean anything :)

  11. really?
    then i must work harder , i hope i can win

  12. Just Search Putu Ivan Budi Gunawan and you'll find it..

    Amin :D

  13. ohhh i know him,i think I'm friend with him